bronchitis asthma symptoms - Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects
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Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects

The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.


Third Generation. The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species.


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 Side effects The fluoroquinolones as a class are generally well tolerated. Most adverse effects are mild in severity, self-limited, and rarely result in treatment discontinuation. However, they can have serious adverse effects.

Fourth Generation. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan).

Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing.

The most surprising effect of any form of hyperventilation is reduced body oxygenation and shorter stress-free breath holding time (index of oxygenation). Why? There are 2 related biochemical effects of over-breathing.

First Generation. The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance.

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.

First, CO2 (carbon dioxide), the gas we exhale, is crucial for dilation of blood vessels. Check it yourself. Start to breathe very heavy in and out just for 1-2 minutes, and you can lose consciousness (faint or pass out) due to low blood supply for the brain. There is another simple test to see the effects of breathing on blood flow. When you get a small accidental bleeding cut, hold your breath and accumulate CO2. Your blood losses can increase 2-5 times! But in real life, pain and sight of blood make breathing heavier preventing large blood losses and providing valuable time for blood to coagulate. It is a mechanism useful for our survival likely based on natural selection.

Practical medical evidence indicates that people can breathe 2-4 times more air every minute and be unaware that their breathing is too heavy. This is exactly the case for patients with heart disease, asthma, bronchitis, chronic fatigue, panic attacks, sleeping problems and many other conditions. The physiological norm for breathing is about 4-6 liters per minute, while medical research found 10-20 liters for the sick people.

Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin.

Anything chronic is considered to be a persistent, recurrent and lasting condition. While chronic bronchitis has often been associated with allergies and/or asthma, there are many other causes that can trigger a bronchial infection. Asthma as we know is a lung disease that is characterized by asthmatic events triggered by a variety of factors which cause a constriction of the bronchial tubes and air passages.

For acute bronchitis the patient should avoid dairy foodstuffs as it will enhance the quantity of sputum produced, complicating the symptoms. As an alternative, cayenne pepper, chicken stock and garlic are suggested as these assist in clearing the mucous. Aromatherapy utilizing eucalyptus facilitates to pacify the irritated lungs and regulate clearer inhalation or respiration. Hot showers or a warm compress too clears the mucus and help in stable breathing. The best solution to bronchitis is quitting smoking as well as being conscious of the second hand smokers.

Yury Bayarski is the author of OriginalDrugs.com - website, offering patches and natural health products. More information about antibiotic medications is available on author's website.

Smoking is a leading causal factor of bronchitis and therefore it is extremely advisable to give up. Renouncing smoking can overturn the consequences of chronic bronchitis plus permit the patients to direct to a more vigorous life. Drinking large amount of fluids resolve to help acute victims of bronchitis. Although acute bronchitis is virtually not as stern as chronic, it is capable of leading to impediments if kept untreated.

Fluoroquinolones disadvantages: Tendonitis or tendon rupture Multiple drug interactions Not used in children Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents

Bronchitis is the medical condition of Inflammation of bronchi of lungs. Microbes or bacteria and foreign substances that entered the respiratory tract lead to the bronchi inflammation stimulating surplus mucus secretion. Thus bronchitis is also defined as a disease of acute or chronic inflammation in the mucous film of the bronchial pipes. The root cause of bronchitis may also be allergic responses to irritants like tobacco smoke.

While Russian doctors accumulated huge clinical experience, very little was translated in English. My educational website http://www.normalbreathing.com has some translations of original Russian publications devoted to this drug-free technique.

Long-term persistent injury, as due to smoking, may direct to chronic bronchitis, where severe, irretrievable harm leaves the lungs unwrap to illness and fibrosis. Smoking-associated chronic bronchitis frequently occurs in connection with emphysema and this is known as chronic disruptive pulmonary disease. Treatment of bronchitis includes drugs to widen the bronchi plus endorse coughing, antibiotics, and existence adaptations like giving up smoking.

Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin) Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin)

A chronic cough, wheezing, breathing difficulties and a tight chest have also been associated with the common smoker's cough. This is unfortunate as there are many environmental factors that can contribute to an infection and caused these types of symptoms.

The Symptoms of acute Bronchitis includes a profound chest cold, insignificant fever; inflammation, feeble voice, imperfect speech, squatness of breath, annoyance, nausea, lung and body pain; dry or mucous comprising cough. On the basis of the degree of seriousness bronchitis is divided into two categories as acute and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is a type of the terrible bronchitis disease due to the soreness of bronchial tree and is generally self limiting. Acute bronchitis is quite similar to an awful chest cold along with ultimate subsiding to undetectable levels. The symptoms of acute bronchitis is consider to be undetectable because of the fact that the shrinkage or the contractions of breathing system be inclined to invite auxiliary episodes. Acute bronchitis if left unchecked and untreated lead to more fatal chronic stages or even asthmatic bronchitis and can be more dangerous in newborns, children, and adults with causal respiratory diseases, particularly emphysema.

Premature diagnosis and management is dangerous in successfully plunging the symptoms of bronchitis. Antibiotics are frequently stipulated to help eradicate infection. Moreover, inhalers are usually used to assist provisional flair-ups for instance wheezing and coughing thus assisting the patient to respire more contentedly. In severe cases oxygen therapy is accepted where the patient is provided oxygen tank to assist breathing and respiration.

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days.

Classification of Fluoroquinolones As a group, the fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The newest fluoroquinolones have enhanced activity against gram-positive bacteria with only a minimal decrease in activity against gram-negative bacteria. Their expanded gram-positive activity is especially important because it includes significant activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Gastrointestinal effects. The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped.

 
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Thousands of medical studies showed and proved other negative effects of overbreathing, such as, abnormal excitability of all nerve cells, bronchoconstriction, reduced activity of many immune cells, muscular spasms, and biochemical changes in rates and directions of many chemical reactions that require normal CO2 content.

There are 2 parts in his system: breathing exercises and common sense activities, which, as they found, influence breathing. For example, when we breathe through the mouth or sleep on the back at night, our oxygenation index can drop almost 2 times! In relation to other activities, Doctor Buteyko even suggested simple rules for better oxygenation: "Eat only when hungry and stop in time", "Go to sleep when really sleepy and get out of the bed in the morning", "Exercise with nasal breathing only", etc. Many other factors are useful for better oxygenation, as Russian doctors found, for example, raw diets, good posture, normal thermoregulation, relaxation and meditation techniques, forgiveness, moderation, hatha yoga postures, cold shower, etc.

According to the Mayo Clinic, a well regarded medical facility, bronchitis and the resulting cough can also be caused from stomach acid irritating for food pipe or esophagus. This is better known as acid reflux disease.

Acid reflux can now be successfully treated with many medications. If you think that someone you know may be suffering from a chronic cough caused by bronchitis or possibly asthma, it's important to understand the lifestyle implications this may involve. The primary focus however, should be to get an accurate diagnosis from a qualified respiratory or pulmonary medical professional.

Usually, people notice that their breathing is heavy when they breathe more than 25 l/min at rest (or 4-6 times the norm!). Such acute episodes of overbreathing are normal during stroke, and asthma, heart, and epilepsy attacks.

Restoration of oxygenation and normal breathing parameters are the main goals of the Buteyko breathing method. The method was developed by Russian Doctor Konstantin Buteyko, who trained about 200 Russian medical professionals to apply this technique for various health conditions. These doctors found that if the patient manage to normalize main parameters of breathing, no symptoms and no medication are required for asthma, bronchitis, heart disease, and many other conditions.

Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible.

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections.

Exposure to chemical fumes and odors may compromise an otherwise healthy respiratory system. This in turn can lead to sensitivity to other environmental factors like dust, but also both primary and secondary tobacco smoke. While the validity of the effects of secondhand smoke are continue to be debated, it has been shown to be an important breathing factor for those with a compromised respiratory system. All of these factors can contribute to the chronic cough experienced by many asthma, allergy and bronchitis sufferers.

A vigorous diet with exercise courses are also suggested for lessening symptom associated with bronchitis. Ordinary aerobic exercise is courteous in intensifying lung capability and supporting in breathing. Walking has an immense low blow exercise for those with bronchitis disease. Besides, breathing cardiovascular exercises can be supportive as well as learning how to get deliberate, cavernous breathing to fortify the muscles and calm down the patient.

Second Generation. The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections.

One such environmental factor is dust. While dust is a common substance found everywhere, it's especially problematic for those of us who may have a compromised respiratory system. A less than ideal breathing tract is found in people suffering with asthma, many allergies and yes even smokers. What's been ignored in many cases however, is that exposure to chemicals can cause a sensitivity to environmental factors such as dust.

As it's recognized that dust is almost everywhere, it's important to try to limit exposure as much as possible. This sensitivity of the person with chronic bronchitis will determine the level of action that's needed to limit dust exposure. Someone who is extremely sensitive may need special air cleaning equipment installed in their home. While another who's sensitivity is not as pronounced may be able to live comfortably in a home simply on a regular cleaning schedule. Check out the link below for free report on tips to eliminate asthmatic and bronchial cough triggers in your home.

Fluoroquinolones advantages: Ease of administration Daily or twice daily dosing Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety

The second main cause of tissue hypoxia for hyperventilators relates to the Bohr effect, a physiological law discovered about a century ago. This law explains how, why, and where our red blood cells release oxygen. The release takes place in those tissues that have higher CO2 content. Hence, those organs and muscles that produce more CO2 get more O2. Try to imagine the picture: the blood arrives in certain tissues and releases more oxygen in the places with high CO2 concentrations. But when we hyperventilate, low CO2 content in all tissues suppresses O2 release from hemoglobin cells and we suffer from hypoxia.

About the Author:

Abigail Franks has done extensive research into Asthma,Allergies, and their triggers. You can find out more about Bronchitis causes and cures and Asthma Triggers and Treatments on her Asthma website.


 
 
     
 
 





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