Bronchitis,Chronic Bronchitis - Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects
Bronchitis Remedy Natural Bronchitis Treatment Treat Bronchitis Naturally Bronchitis cure
 

Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects

The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.


Bronovil Natural Bronchitis Remedy

irritable bowel syndrome (Bronchitis) natural remedy Natural natural bronchitis cure.

Formulated to Help Support:
  • Boost your immune system
  • Stop persistent cough
  • Relieve lung inflamation
  • Naturally relieve pain and fever
  • Prevent virus from attacking your lungs
  • Breathe easier
  • Feel stronger in no time

Great Product
Bronchitis Remedy


 The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections.

Fluoroquinolones disadvantages:


Tendonitis or tendon rupture
Multiple drug interactions
Not used in children
Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents


Fluoroquinolones advantages:


Ease of administration
Daily or twice daily dosing
Excellent oral absorption
Excellent tissue penetration
Prolonged half-lives
Significant entry into phagocytic cells
Efficacy
Overall safety


Classification of Fluoroquinolones

As a group, the fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The newest fluoroquinolones have enhanced activity against gram-positive bacteria with only a minimal decrease in activity against gram-negative bacteria. Their expanded gram-positive activity is especially important because it includes significant activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

First Generation. The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance.

Second Generation. The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections.

Second-generation agents include ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is the most potent fluoroquinolone against P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are the most widely used second-generation quinolones because of their availability in oral and intravenous formulations and their broad set of FDA-labeled indications.

Third Generation. The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species.

Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin.

Fourth Generation. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan).

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days.

Side effects

The fluoroquinolones as a class are generally well tolerated. Most adverse effects are mild in severity, self-limited, and rarely result in treatment discontinuation. However, they can have serious adverse effects.

Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible.


Gastrointestinal effects. The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients.
CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients.
Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin.
Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating.
Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids.
Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks.
Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential.
Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild.
Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped.

 
Natural Bronchitis Remedy

What People Said About Bronovil Bronchitis Cure
"I felt miserable so i went to doctor and he said i had a bronchitis. he gave me antibiotic but even 2 weeks later i was still coughing. i got the bronovil remedy and 3 days later my cough went away." Betty - California
Bronchitis treatment



Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing.

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.


Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin)
Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin)
Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin)
Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin)
Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin)
Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin)
Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin)
Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin)




Yury Bayarski is the author of OriginalDrugs.com - website, offering patches and natural health products. More information about antibiotic medications is available on author's website.

 
 
     
 
 





Learn More about Natural Bronchitis Remedy

Coughing is an important way to keep your throat and airways clear. Coughing is an action the body takes to get rid of burdens that are irritating the air passages. In the more advanced stages, it s marked by the symptom that gives the disease its name: a severe, hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like whoop. Coughing can also be triggered by a bolus of...


Bronchitis is the inflammation or obstruction of the bronchi, the breathing tubes that lead to the lungs. Bronchitis can either be acute or chronic. Acute bronchitis is caused by an infection which can be bacterial, viral, chlamydial (vinereal) or mycoplasmal (fungal); typically it is an upper respiratory tract infection. Chronic bronchitis results from frequent irritation from the lungs such as...


If you are a smoker, apart from being chastised at every opportunity by the anti-smoking police, you will no doubt be aware that smoking is bad for your health. So why are the smoking nazis always being so down on you? Why do they want you to quit? The answers lie in the smoking cessation benefits that come from quitting the evil weed. Smoking os so bad for your health it beggars...


Diseases affect the lives of people in an adverse way. Therefore, it is necessary to develop healthy habits in order to prevent the occurrence of these diseases. Diseases are caused by both virus and bacteria; however, in certain cases, environmental conditions also play a major role in causing certain ailments. For instance, bronchitis, an ailment of the respiratory system, is both viral and...


asthmatic bronchitis symptoms | akute bronchitis ansteckung | chronic bronchitis signs symptoms | bronchitis mediion | bronchitis medical information | curing bronchitis without antibiotics | chest wheezing bronchitis | steroids bronchitis side effects | acute bronchitis symptoms treatment | information sore throat bronchitis | pathophysiology of acute bronchitis patients |





over the counter treatments of chronic bronchitis
tracheal bronchitis
post-bronchitis syndrome
health benefits of purified tap water water filters perth healthy living clean water tap water
can post nasal drip lead to bronchitis
bronchitis lung infection
spastische bronchitis
bronchitis behandlung
tracheal bronchitis
behandlung bronchitis


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(c) 2018 acutebronchitis.info
Contact Us | About Us | Privacy Policy | RSS Feed | Bronchitis,Chronic Bronchitis